Powerhouse Herb – Sceletium Tortuosum

Beware – not all extracts are created equal…

In the realm of natural wellness, Sceletium tortuosum, also known as ‘Kanna’, is emerging as a powerhouse herb celebrated for its potential therapeutic benefits. However, not all Sceletium extracts are created equal, and the journey from source material to final product can significantly impact the effectiveness of this botanical marvel. Let’s look at the benefits of Sceletium tortuosum extract, the importance of sourcing high-quality material, and the revolutionary role played by Dynamic Cellular Disruption®(DCD®) and Disruptor® technology in preserving its potency.

Sourcing matters: The essence of quality material

The effectiveness of any herbal extract begins with the quality of its source material. Sceletium tortuosum, native to South Africa, has a rich history of traditional use for mood enhancement and stress relief. However, not all sources uphold the standards necessary to deliver the full spectrum of benefits. The discerning consumer must be aware that subpar sourcing can compromise the efficacy of the final extract.

Extracting the essence: The right way vs the wrong way

The extraction process is a critical determinant of the potency of Sceletium tortuosum extract. Inferior methods can denature the original material, stripping away the compounds responsible for its therapeutic effects, and leaving a fair amount of the phyto-actives behind in so-called ‘waste’. It’s essential to distinguish between extracts made with precision and care and those produced using suboptimal techniques.

DCD® and Disruptor® technology: a game-changer in herbal extraction

Enter DCD® and Disruptor® technology, a revolutionary force in the realm of herbal extraction. This innovative approach challenges traditional methods by ensuring that the integrity of the botanical material is preserved throughout the extraction process. Unlike conventional techniques that may use heat or chemical solvents, Disruptor® technology effectively minimizes the risk of degradation, resulting in a more potent and effective Sceletium tortuosum extract.

Preserving nature’s blueprint

Higher potency – Disruptor® technology preserves the delicate balance of compounds within Sceletium tortuosum, ensuring a more potent extract with enhanced therapeutic benefits.

Purity assurance

By avoiding denaturation, Disruptor®-made extracts retain the purity of the original material, free from contaminants or unwanted by-products.


The efficiency of Disruptor® technology minimizes waste and energy consumption, aligning with sustainable practices for environmentally conscious consumers.

As interest in natural wellness continues to grow, the quality of herbal extracts becomes a crucial consideration. In the case of Sceletium tortuosum, sourcing high-quality material and utilizing advanced extraction techniques, such as Disruptor® technology, can make a significant difference in the efficacy of the final product. When seeking the transformative benefits of Sceletium tortuosum extract, choose wisely—opt for extracts crafted with care, precision, and a commitment to preserving the essence of this remarkable botanical through innovative technologies.

Revolutionising the Plate: Disruptor® Technology and the Eco-Friendly Evolution of F&B

In an era marked by growing environmental concerns and a heightened focus on personal health, the food and beverage (F&B) industry is undergoing a transformative shift. Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the impact of their dietary choices on both their well-being and the planet. As a result, the demand for healthier, sustainably produced food and drinks is surging. This paradigm shift is not only influencing what ends up on our plates but also how it gets there.

The environmental toll of traditional food production

Traditional methods of food and beverage production have long been associated with significant environmental consequences. From deforestation for agriculture to excessive water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, our conventional approach to feeding the global population has been taking a toll on the planet.

But that’s how it’s grown.  What about how it is made?

Consumers drive change

The shift towards sustainability is not solely driven by environmental concerns; consumers are also demanding healthier alternatives. As people become more conscious of their diets, they are seeking products that align with their health and wellness goals. This shift in consumer preferences is acting as a catalyst for the F&B industry to reassess and reformulate its products and how those products are processed.

Disruptor Technology: A game-changer for sustainability

Enter Disruptor® technology, a revolutionary force that is reshaping the landscape of food and beverage production. Disruptive technology is an innovative solution that challenges and replaces or fundamentally enhances traditional methods, offering more efficient, sustainable, and often healthier alternatives.

Disruptor® technology can process ‘whole’ organic material – meaning that the technology allows for things like whole orange, lemon, or apple juice for example.  It can also easily process all parts of the animal meat carcass – including 4th and 5th quarter meats – unlike any other processing equipment. No rendering required.

Making use of the entire plant or the entire animal has exponential positive impact on our environment – making the most of what we already have…

Reducing food waste

With billions of tons of food wasted each year globally, advancements in smart packaging, preservation techniques, and supply chain management are helping minimize the environmental impact of food production. However, it can now go beyond these measures as Green Cell Technologies’ has perfected Dynamic Cellular Disruption (DCD) through the Disruptor machine to process whole organic material without waste.  Or, the same process and technology can take existing waste streams, sterilise any micro or pathogens and turn ‘waste’ into ‘value.’  Waste can be reduced or completely eradicated.

Plant-based alternatives

The rise of plant-based alternatives is another disruptive force making waves. Companies are leveraging technology to create plant-based products that mimic the taste and texture of traditional meat, providing environmentally friendly options for consumers looking to reduce their ecological footprint.

Precision agriculture

In the realm of utilising data, sensors, and automation, farmers can optimize resource use, reduce waste, and minimise environmental impact. This not only benefits the planet but also contributes to the production of healthier crops – imagine disrupting all the goodness from improved rootstock?

As consumers increasingly prioritise healthier and more sustainable choices, the F&B industry is compelled to embrace new technologies that align with these values. The marriage of technology and sustainability is not just a trend; it’s an imperative for the survival of our planet. By supporting innovations that reduce waste, lower carbon footprints, and promote healthier eating, we can collectively contribute to a more sustainable and climate-friendly future—one bite and sip at a time.

Look out for the Green Cell Technologies (GCT) leaf on your favourite products to know that your manufacturer is using DCD and Disruptor technology.  No leaf – ask the manufacturer why they are not taking your health and the planet seriously…

Conscious Eating

The food industry is experiencing significant trends related to consumer preference for whole and natural foods, driven by a desire for preventative care, improved mental health, and overall wellness.  Ignited by the COVID-19 era, consumers are becoming more health-conscious and interested in the quality of their food, leading to several notable shifts in the industry:

  1. Preventative care – Consumers are increasingly adopting a proactive approach to their health by focusing on preventive measures, which includes choosing foods that can support their well-being. There is a growing awareness of how diet can influence overall health, and many are seeking whole and natural foods with specific health benefits, such as antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals.
  2. Mental health and wellness – Mental health is gaining prominence as an important aspect of overall well-being. People are recognizing the link between diet and mental health, leading to a demand for foods that can support cognitive function, reduce stress, and improve mood. Whole and natural foods are seen as a key component of a holistic approach to mental wellness.
  3. Transparency and clean labelling – Consumers are becoming more discerning about what they consume. They want to know where their food comes from, how it’s made, and what ingredients are used. Clean labeling and transparency in food production are important, as people seek to avoid additives, preservatives, and highly processed ingredients.
  4. Sustainability – Sustainability is a critical concern for modern consumers. They are looking for food options that are not only good for their health but also environmentally friendly. Sustainable sourcing, packaging, and production practices are increasingly important to many consumers.
  5. Plant-based and natural alternatives – The rise of plant-based diets and a focus on natural ingredients is evident. People are exploring plant-based proteins, dairy alternatives, and minimally processed foods as part of their dietary choices.

Green Cell Technologies’ Disruptor technology can potentially make a significant difference in addressing these trends. The technology is known for its ability to efficiently extract valuable compounds from plant-based materials while preserving their natural attributes. Here’s how it aligns with the trends:

  1. Nutrient preservation – Disruptor technology can help preserve the natural nutritional components of whole foods, ensuring that consumers receive the full spectrum of health benefits these foods offer. This aligns with the trend of preventive care, where consumers are looking for nutrient-rich-options.
  2. Clean labelling – The technology allows for the production of clean-label products by extracting valuable compounds from natural sources without the need for synthetic additives or solvents. This appeals to consumers who prioritize transparency in food production.
  3. Plant-based and natural alternatives – the technology can be used to extract and concentrate plant-based ingredients, making it valuable in the development of plant-based foods, supplements, and natural alternatives that align with current consumer preferences.
  4. Sustainability – Green Cell Technologies’ Disruptor technology can contribute to sustainability by reducing waste and making more efficient use of raw materials in the food production process.

As consumers become more discerning about what they eat and seek whole, natural, and nutrient-rich foods for their well-being, technologies like the Disruptor and the Dynamic Cellular Disruption process, can play a role in meeting these demands. The technology’s ability to extract valuable compounds from natural sources efficiently can support the development of products that cater to the evolving preferences of health-conscious consumers.

Sebrium DCD® – Green Cell Technologies® and Molecular Health Technologies Announce Partnership

LEADING biotechnology company, Green Cell Technologies® (GCT®) and US-based Molecular Health Technologies (MHT) have signed an exclusive partnership agreement for MHT to market and distribute Sebrium DCD® – a high-powered and unique Sceletium tortuosum (Sceletium) extract created using next generation technology, Dynamic Cellular Disruption® – in North America and the United Kingdom (UK).

Sebrium DCD® is a quality and affordable natural support for the world’s escalating mental health and opioid dependency dilemma and is available in a powdered extract and liquid format. The excipient-less DCD® Sceletium tortuosum extracts have strengths up to 18% pure total alkaloids – without removing many of the other balancing phytochemistry molecules, but are predominantly standardized to 3% total alkaloids.

David Garner, CEO of Molecular Health Technologies remarked that, “Molecular Health Technologies has a 25-year track record of providing innovative solutions to a broad range of branded clients, and with this partnership agreement on the trademarked Sebrium DCD®, we can now bring a truly effective extract to the market using Disruptor® technology that also has the potential to disrupt the entire extracts industry. 

“In respect of Sebrium DCD®, we have already seen a greater awareness of the higher Entourage Effect Sceletium/Kanna extract as compared to that of competing less potent alkaloid material. This has enabled us to work with a variety of branded companies who are now able to formulate products that have the maximum entourage feeling/outcome using this proprietary and trademarked extract, such as sports companies for pre-workout focus and stress-related pain management as well as weight management companies for less anxiety and overall mood support.”

Marrying the ancient wisdom of nature with modern science and technology and using its Dynamic Cellular Disruption® (DCD®) process and Disruptor® Technology, GCT® has developed a unique process and extraction technique, which requires 50 % less raw materials than any other extraction technology to produce synergistically optimised pure extracts.

The patented technology, together with GCT’s proprietary solvent medium, has now developed a Sceletium tortuosum liquid-grade extract whereby 99.999998% of the available phytochemistry is extracted from the raw material.  The latest extract shows a 12-fold increase on base activity of the raw material, achieving more than 18% pure alkaloids and increased yield in the process.

The DCD® liquid complements the company’s existing Sebrium DCD® powdered extracts already in the market.

Tested in independent SANAS accredited laboratories, the LD50 (lethal dosage) analysis of the DCD® Sceletium extracts, categorically show they are safe for human consumption. The LD 50** was calculated to be 1243mg/day for human consumption, which is more than 48 times the current competing 0.5% dosage of 25mg, as opposed to the 3% total alkaloids purity per day provided for in the DCD® Sceletium extracts (Sebrium DCD®).

The retentate (cake) was tested on HPLC and showed less than 20 parts per billion activity, confirming the efficacy of the extraction having liberated all the alkaloids and other phytochemistry. GCT supplies the remaining ‘cake’ to the construction industry, supporting company net zero and circular economy mandates.

Roy Henderson co-founder and CEO of Green Cell Technologies says: “We are pleased to have this partnership with David Garner and his team at Molecular Health Technologies who have a respected and well-established industry profile, and we both look forward to providing the market with a truly effective extract. This is achieved not only using our patented technology, but also through our efforts to ensure a consistent supply of quality material.”

Balanced Extracts

In 2011, GCT® created its first working prototype of the Disruptor® and the process known as Dynamic Cellular Disruption®, which even then, showed that processing the entire material and not isolating specific actives, would have a better overall beneficial effect for consumers. 

That said, GCT’s DCD® process easily allows for isolated active extraction – as per client led instructions.  Given that the process also does not rely on heat or chemicals, denaturing of the extracts is limited or non-existent.

As noted by Henderson, the consistency in source material is not always present, which is why GCT® has also been at pains to identify a specific high potency genus that contains a full spectrum of alkaloids and one that is consistent, which it has now backward integrated to farmers, who grow under license for GCT’s licensed manufacturers.

The extracts are made in GMP, HACCP, ISO 22000 certified facilities, utilising GCT’s Disruptor® technology, along with the requisite FDA accreditations, as well as bio-prospecting credentials to deal in African botanicals submitted in 2011.

Disruptor Technology at work in GCT’s South African Centre of Excellence

Entourage Effect Sceletium (Kanna) and new Sceletium liquid extracts using novel proprietary solvent medium – no excipients required- brought to market in North America and the UK via strong partnership agreement aimed at helping formulators create meaningful and effective products that help combat a variety of mental health issues.

Key Takeouts:

  • Exclusive partnership for trademarked Sebrium DCD®
  • No excipient required post extract – naturally flowable
  • High purity and wider range
  • Balanced extracts promoting Entourage Effect
  • Greater yields
  • 50% less base source required to attain extracts.
  • Confirmation of no toxicity
  • High uptake of alkaloids*
  • No waste.

* Dossier available on request to info@greencelltechnologies.com

** For the LD 50 report please email info@greencelltechnologies.com

About Sceletium tortuosum

The importance and reputation of Sceletium tortuosum (also known as ‘Kanna’ or ‘Kougoed’) as a natural medicine for anxiety, stress, depression, PTSD management, sleep management, sports nutrition as well as cognitive memory enhancement, is well-documented** and growing globally.  This Southern African endemic ‘opportunistic’ succulent species has been used as a mood elevator for centuries and is one of the oldest known Mesembryanthemoideae in the world.  It is also non-habit forming and has been successfully used in the treatment of addictions.

About Green Cell Technologies

Green Cell Technologies® (GCT®) is a global, triple bottom line 4IR technology innovation company pioneering the future of how organic material (plant and animal) and inorganic material (gold and ceramics) is processed.  The company is headquartered on the Isle of Man with a centre of excellence currently located in South Africa.

GCT markets, sells, distributes, logistically supports, and provides processing solutions for Dynamic Cellular Disruption®, (DCD®) and Disruptor™ Technology.  The company licenses its technology to like-minded partners around the world direct to individual companies and through Regional Exclusive Licensees.  See www.greencelltechnologies.com for more information.

** See PubMed for reports

For all media enquiries, please contact kaz@networxpr.co.za

Does the world’s rush to electric vehicles hide a dirty secret?

If we really want to tackle the climate and energy emergencies, Roy Henderson, CEO of Green Cell Technologies believes biofuels beat lithium-ion batteries right now to avoid swapping one environmental crisis for another

In August 1893, with hope and trepidation, Rudolf Diesel fired up the new engine he’d invented. The test wasn’t a success, and another four years of development were needed before Diesel could unveil his 25hp single-cylinder motor and pronounce it a significant improvement on the steam engine. It ran on oil extracted from peanuts.

Nearly 130 years later, oil from crops still fuels motors. But most combustion engines run on fossil oil pumped from deep underground then transported vast distances in pipelines and ships before being refined.

One of the ironies of the fossil fuel age is that while diesel started its commercial life as a carbon-neutral fuel, it went on to become one of the leading contributors to the climate catastrophe. As recently as 2021, according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), 26% of transport-related CO₂ emissions in the United States came from diesel. Meanwhile, biofuels produced from living materials such as rapeseed, soybeans and sugarcane fall into such a small category of petroleum products that the EIA counts them alongside substances such as asphalt, lubricants, and kerosene when it publishes consumption data.

Electric vehicles are not new

There are good reasons for biofuels’ failure to make a dent in the energy market, which we’ll come back to. But first, another quick visit to the end of the 19th century when one in three cars in the US ran on electricity. Recognising the potential for further growth, the prolific inventor Thomas Edison patented a nickel-iron rechargeable battery and later he even worked with Henry Ford on ideas for a low-cost electric car.

Unfortunately for Edison, the battery was one of his failures due to its unreliability, and his endeavours coincided with massive early-20th century oil discoveries in Texas, which meant the US had plentiful cheap fuel for decades to come. The fact that Ford’s petroleum-powered Model T was cheap didn’t help, and by 1935 electric cars had all but vanished from the roads.

Here, then, is a second irony of the fossil fuel boom: it effectively killed off a promising technology that remained largely dormant for nearly a century, during which the carbon crisis became an existential threat to life on Earth. 

Today, as we know, renewable energy from solar and wind, and significant progress in battery efficiency, are seen as key developments in the quest to save the world from global heating. But are they really? Or, in our panic-stricken efforts to slow climate change, do we run the risk of ignoring the lessons of the industrial age by embracing a “solution” that is nothing of the sort?

The word “pollution” doesn’t seem large or complex enough to encompass the scale of the damage wrought by humanity’s need for energy or the number of ways in which our addiction has harmed the planet. There is no space to rehearse them here, but they are well known, and they continue to expand, thanks to activities such as accelerating destruction of the Amazon rainforest to make way for farms and mines, and new attempts to drill for oil and gas in the Arctic. 

These are headline-grabbing events driven by powerful lobbies, which recruit (and often fund) compliant politicians. But lying-in wait for a world increasingly ready to clutch at any straw, is a new wave of pollution driven by lithium-ion battery technology – for now, the gold standard of energy storage.

First, there’s the problem of mining, never an environmentally friendly activity. In an article for the Wellcome Collection in 2021, Laura Grace Simpkins said: “The common environmental side effects of lithium mining are water loss, ground destabilisation, biodiversity loss, increased salinity of rivers, contaminated soil and toxic waste.” No big surprises there for the people and creatures of Australia, Latin America and China, which together accounted for 98% of lithium production in 2020, according to McKinsey. Mining for other battery constituents, such as cobalt and nickel, is not much better.  But in August 2022, Mining.com reported on an International Energy Agency assessment, which said 127 new lithium, cobalt and nickel mines are needed if 2030 global carbon emissions goals are to be met.  

Then there are the hidden carbon costs of manufacturing batteries, estimated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology at between 2.4 tonnes and 16 tonnes of emissions for every Tesla Model 3 battery. At the top end of the scale, you’d need to travel 64,000km in a petrol-powered vehicle to emit that amount of CO₂.  

Next, there’s the open question of what will happen to millions of lithium-ion batteries when they reach the end of their 10-year life. The danger, difficulty, and expense of recycling them mean it’s cheaper and easier to mine new lithium. So, alongside toxic new mine dumps, we can now expect to see mountains of spent batteries loaded with heavy metals. 

Naturally, scientists are tackling everything from safer and cheaper recycling methods to alternative battery technologies and materials, but in its frenzied rush to lithium, the world risks swapping one environmental crisis for another. When the Tesla CEO, Elon Musk, tweeted in July 2022 that “lithium batteries are the new oil”, he was responding to a comment by venture capitalist David Sacks that “there can be no security without energy independence”. Unfortunately, and unintentionally albeit aptly, he might just as well have been talking about pollution. 

Another difficulty for electric vehicles – projected to be the biggest single growth market for lithium-ion technology – is infrastructure. Replacing the hundreds of thousands of petrol stations across the world with recharging facilities is a mammoth and expensive task. By June 2022, according to the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association, the 307,000 public charging points installed in the EU represent less than 5% of the number needed if the bloc is to reach its 2030 CO₂ reduction target. Meanwhile, vehicles powered solely by petrol and diesel still account for 56% of new registrations across the EU, pointing to significant continuing demand for fossil fuels.

Then there’s the rocketing price of lithium carbonate, which cost 493,000 Chinese yuan a tonne at the end of August 2022, compared with 109,000 yuan a year earlier, according to Trading Economics. Rising demand for the metal, thanks to moves such as California’s plan to ban the sale of cars with internal combustion engines by 2035, mean the price will keep rising for the foreseeable future.

Finally, for many countries, generating the electricity to recharge vehicles is, in itself, a dirty business. And that’s if there is even enough generation capacity for existing needs – a problem still common in the developing world. Consequently, for the electric vehicle manufacturers to claim zero emission, it can only truly be realised, mining and battery disposal aside, when all bulk electric generation around the world is non-emitting.

If we accept the argument that renewable energy stored in lithium-ion batteries is not the panacea for climate change, where does that leave us? 

The Solution – Cracking the Biofuels Code?

Texas-based ExxonMobil, by any measure is one of the world’s largest oil producers, is leading the charge, by heading back to the roots of powered transport and investing in biofuel research in a collaboration with biotech company Viridos.

Biofuel has never had an economic advantage over fossil fuels, meaning it held little interest for investors. Soaring fuel prices spurred by geopolitical developments in 2022 are eroding that disadvantage, but agricultural hurdles such as monoculture, the need for fertilisers and a perceived global food shortage, mean it will remain difficult to defend the use of farmland for growing fuel feedstock, especially if that also involves deforestation. Then, there are emissions from biofuel processing, as well as high water use. Finally, car makers worldwide say the use of biofuels invalidates their warranties.

Most of these disadvantages disappear with the development of third-generation biofuels using microalgae as a feedstock, because these tiny organisms do not compete for arable land with food and feed crops, and they can be grown almost anywhere in salt water. Indeed, in a world where the production of fossil fuel was limited – either by legislation or by market forces – today’s big oil producers could retain their market share by using unproductive land to cultivate microalgae, some of which have a lipid (oily) content of up to 80%, according to a peer-reviewed paper published in 2018.

Biotechnicians are using genetic engineering to create microalgae with even higher lipid content, and Viridos says desert-based farms that cover thousands of hectares “will be the tipping point at which algae biofuel becomes an essential, scalable and cost-competitive tool to mitigate climate change”.

With CRISPR gene-editing technology putting the world on course to solving one half of the biofuel equation, a revolutionary post-harvest technique called Dynamic Cellular Disruption (DCD®) deals with the rest of the problem. By replacing the biochemical, thermochemical, and chemical methods traditionally used to extract oil from algae, DCD® processing and Disruptor® technology means higher yields, a lower price and minimal environmental impact.

The Disruptor®, which has already found applications in the food, pharmaceutical and agri-chemical sectors – dramatically increasing yields and lowering costs in all cases – accelerates source material to many times the speed of sound then decelerates it in a nanosecond, stretching the cell structure beyond the limits of its elasticity until it snaps. In doing so, the material’s inherent chemistry is released. The oil produced once microalgae have been processed in the Disruptor® is immediately ready for refining. This means no changes are needed in the refining or distribution network the world already has.

And if people are concerned that continuing to burn oil will cause further harm to the climate, the EIA in the US has this to say:  “Production and use of biofuels is considered … to have fewer or lower negative effects on the environment compared to fossil-fuel derived fuels.” This advice, last updated in April 2022, is based on traditional agricultural feedstocks for biofuels. With microalgae, the argument becomes even more compelling.

As for the problem of vehicle manufacturers refusing to honour warranties if biofuel has been used, a strong signal that their stance will change came when companies including Toyota, Suzuki, Subaru, and Daihatsu set up a research association in July 2022 to explore ways of using biomass-based fuels in internal combustion engines.

According to Reuters, the companies are keen to find greener ways of sustaining existing engine technology – including biofuels and hydrogen – so they can continue supporting supply chains that employ hundreds of thousands of people. 

The gist of all this, is that using biofuels, like microalgae, just means the source of energy is grown and not mined, but that the rest, which is proven and familiar to consumers, remains in place and with better environmental impact. Existing fuel vendors continue in the value chain and can carry on business as usual as it is only the fuel source that changes.

Rudolf Diesel’s peanut oil is mainly used in cooking today but its descendant – oil from genetically engineered microalgae processed at molecular level by world-leading technology – could now see the dream of carbon-negative fuel finally coming true.

Something to think about…

About Roy Henderson – Chief Executive Officer, Green Cell Technologies®

Roy is a co-founder of Green Cell Technologies (GCT®) and the company’s CEO.  A retired combat officer with a successful and medal awarded naval career over 21 years, has elicited a curious mind honed by an MBA and a drive to succeed.  This has culminated in the creation and development of the ground-breaking technology – Dynamic Cellular Disruption and Disruptor Technology. 

Roy has a refreshing reputation for forthrightness and tenacity.  Everyone knows where they stand with him and with the company, which is appreciated by clients and colleagues alike.  His can-do attitude, coupled with proven business acumen and a strong leaning towards problem solving have also stood him and GCT in good stead as the company has self-funded its way from innovation to global commercial success. 

Please see Roy’s LinkedIn profile here which has an extensive following and engagement.

Upcycling BSG Waste to Produce Value-Added Byproducts

Green Cell Technologies (GCT) and RWH Holdings (RWH) have worked with several global brewers over a period of eight years to understand the challenges around what to do with their leftovers—brewers spent grain (BSG) and brewers spent yeast (BSY)—and the answer, as it would happen, is disrupt it.

About 39 million tons of brewer’s spent grain (BSG) is produced annually worldwide. That is the same as approximately 3,900,000 waste removal trucks which, end-to-end will wrap around Earth’s equator 6.8 times. BSG is the residual waste stream that remains after the brewing of beer. BSG is remarkably high in protein and fiber, has some residual energy and is a healthy food intake for human, animal and earth—if prepared correctly. 

Unfortunately, BSG usually spoils within a day due to its high water, sugar and protein content. 

This brief period makes BSG difficult to transport and process further into food or other human-grade products. Therefore, it is predominantly used in the feed sector as it is not readily available for human consumption. (Food Valley, 2022)

Molecules found in the cellular structures of meat, fruit, vegetables, berries, nuts, grain, seeds etc. provide sustaining nutrition to achieve good health and wellbeing. Those molecules represent a comprehensive—across the spectrum—variety of all the macro and micronutrients necessary for human beings (including animals and earth) to flourish. 

However, current food and beverage processing methods damage many of these “molecules of interest” and nullify their efficacy. With reduced nutrition in processing and a loss of fiber, there is only a sense of satiety but not much nutritional or health benefit. Existing processing methods cannot easily and effectively process skins, seeds and grains (which contain significant nutritional or valuable properties) or radically reduce the fiber particle size to a level that will not upset the organoleptic sensibilities of the consumer. 

Therefore, a conventional processor ends each day with not only a large pile of waste, which impacts the environment, but also an end-product that is sold to consumers with a vastly reduced nutritional profile as compared to what it could be. Ironically, the “waste” represents the majority of the raw material molecules that are required for optimal nutrition. The “waste” also represents most of the fiber, which if ingested, would aid other nutritional and health benefits. Instead, consumers are mostly left fiber deficient. 

Disrupting BSG

Disruptor technology was used in several trials, to deploy a non-chemical process (Dynamic Cellular Disruption or DCD) to open greater than 99% of all cell structures of the BSG “waste” mass. It’s important to note that DCD and Disruptor technology can be applied to any organic and some inorganic materials.

During the DCD process, other than pipe loss, which is the same volume irrespective of the production size, there is zero waste generated as the plant material can be used in its entirety. 

DCD also renders bio-available, all the molecules for the body to utilize, and ensures digestibility of the insoluble material(s). DCD does not manufacture molecules, but instead extracts what is available within the cell structure—more efficiently. This is from the source material and therefore, outcomes are wholly reliant on the source material itself.   

DCD also reduces the microbiological contaminants, yeasts and molds found in source materials—product that is passed through the Disruptor will show improved microbiological cleanliness.

In short, the DCD process and Disruptor technology increases available nutrition per serving and reduces particle size and waste, which has a positive impact in the consumer as well as the environment. The increased extraction of molecules signifies an increase in yield and nutrition, and with the utilization of what would normally be considered waste, has a positive economic impact on the processing value chain as well as environmental impact—circular economy.

Conventional vs DCD/Disruptor Technology Processing—BSG

Conventional manufacturing of BSG typically involves drying and milling into a powder. Analysis of the powder will show that the particle size remains big which influences the taste of end products (comments of “cardboard” and “grittiness” are common).

Conventional drying and milling methods do not guarantee any increase in yield or nutrition, digestibility or microbial cleanliness.

DCD and Disruptor extract processing allows for particles to be reduced to sub-100 micron, microbially clean, increased available nutrition and bio-available—all in one step.  

The resultant emulsion can be dried, then milled into a very fine powder, complete with health benefits ready for further use in manufacturing if required.  

This then opens possibilities of extended product lines and additional revenue generation for brewers.

BSG Testing Methodology

Demonstrating that DCD and Disruptor technology adds value to BSG manufacture, 200kg of BSG were processed. Material samples were taken for analysis pre and post DCD and sent for independent laboratory analysis.

  1. University of Stellenbosch – pre- and post-DCD amino acid profile measurement.
  2. SGS (SANAS accredited commercial lab) – pre- and post-DCD microbiological and heavy metal measurement.
  3. Hearshaw and Kinnes (H&K) for pre- and post-DCD pesticide residue measurement.


Phyto-Chemistry: Amino Acids (Protein)
The report shows an average protein increase of 29%. This is clinically very significant if one considers that the barley or starch source used for beer manufacture before it became BSG, was subjected to substantial boiling to conduct extraction for the beer manufacturing process of which, much of the protein will have already been solubilized into the beer liquid. This is proven by the step that is required to minimize it to prevent cloudy beer.

The report found that there was a 1,600,000-fold decrease (99.999% improvement) in total plate count from 16000000cfu/g to 10cfu/g between the pre-DCD and post-DCD samples. The DCD process also reduced yeasts and molds to “not detected” from 16800cfu/g and 28000cfu/g, respectively.

Heavy Metals
The test measured for heavy metals typically examined for food and beverage production safety, those being mercury, cadmium, lead, and arsenic. All results are <0.01 mg/kg where normal production (depending on source) will allow <3 mg/kg, <1 mg/kg, <0.1 mg/kg and <3 mg/kg, respectively. There is no difference from pre-DCD to post-DCD proving that DCD and Disruptor technology do not increase the prevalence of heavy metals, but rather significantly reduce them.

Pesticide Residue
Benzalkonium chloride at a residue rate of 5.5 mg/kg post-DCD and anomalous amount of piperonyl butoxide pre-DCD to post-DCD respectively were found in the test samples. 

H&K also tested for approximately 250 other residual pesticide compounds, of which none were detected above their reporting limits, as can be seen from the lab reports (available on request).

Benzalkonium chloride is a compound found in SABS approved sanitizers, disinfectants and detergents that are mandated for use as per ISO 22000:2018 certification requirements to effectively achieve clean in place (CIP) in processing spaces. The material safety data sheets are available on request. 

The lethal dose median (LD50) for benzalkonium chloride is 240 mg/kg, which would mean that a consumer would need to ingest 600 kg of the BSG in one sitting for there to be a 0.5 probability of any toxic effect. This is shown to be more improbable if one considers that the BSG flour will be diluted further as a part of a more complex ingredient final product. 

Piperonyl butoxide is a very low toxic effect ingredient found in “pest control” products, but in this case was anomalous. Notwithstanding, in a fit for purpose facility this control would be better monitored and reduced. 

This proves that DCD and Disruptor technology do not release or increase any additional pesticide residue and the post-DCD BSG is safe for human consumption.


No more need for mash tuns—Disruptor technology has proven that beer can be manufactured by processing the starch source material with some of the processing water, through the Disruptor to affect an immediate extraction of starches, thus negating the need to boil in mash tuns to perform an extraction. Previous trials showed an increase of 8% to 12% of extractable starches from the same starch source increasing the yield of beer manufacture proportionately. 

This means more beer from the same raw material, with quicker turn around so that more beer per plant can be produced with little additional capex, and the removal of the massive costs associated with the purchase of a mash tun.

Dual processing of beer and BSG value-added byproducts: The temperatures needed to facilitate conversion from starch to sugar and sugar to alcohol are a function of the DCD process. The insoluble fibers (BSG) are separated from the liquid by decanter. The liquid can go into the fermenter and the insoluble fibers, which have already been broken to sub-100 microns, can be dried to a stable flour as a food ingredient. This will show circular economy benefits, massive value chain savings and environmental benefits in processing because there would be no need to process beer first and then BSG, as they would effectively be processed at the same time.

Increased yields and waste reduction: Conventional processing of food and beverage consumer products does not efficiently extract nutritional compounds and produces excessive waste, which is usually where the true goodness is found. Conventional methods also reduce fiber in the final product, when compared to DCD and Disruptor technology, which utilizes the “whole” product.

DCD and Disruptor technology reduce microbial loading. This means that DCD BSG promotes food security from a waste stream more effectively than conventional means. 

Testing of the BSG flour has shown that there is a substantial release in protein, from which can be deduced that other phytochemistry will also increase proportionately. The post-DCD BSG is microbially and heavy-metal clean and fit for human consumption. It can also be concluded that DCD and Disruptor technology do not release additional heavy metals and pesticide residues. 

Perhaps the most significant consideration is that by deploying DCD and Disruptor technology earlier in the value chain (at the beer manufacturing phase), this will result in the entire raw material being used for beer and a food ingredient with no waste with added environmental and economic benefit.

To request the test results, email: info@greencelltechnologies.com

By Roy Henderson, Jan Vlok

(Article originally published on foodengineeringmag.com)

Proteins: Use the entire animal

Tools now exist to make the use of animals as food sources more sustainable.

(By Wayne Labs – originally published on foodengineeringmag.com)

Back in 2016, in this column I featured new technology aimed at reducing vegetables and fruits— and especially the usually discarded parts — down to and including the molecular level, so nothing gets wasted. Roy Henderson, CEO of Green Cell Technologies® (GCT®), and his Research and Development Director Jan Vlok, dubbed this new technology “Dynamic Cellular Disruption®” (DCD®) and Disruptor® technology, and designed and co-founded the company around it.

The pair saw a real need for this product in some parts of the world, where climate and soil issues create extreme food shortages. In 2016, I described this technology as a method “to provide food manufacturers with a compact and cost-saving way to process their food more expediently, reduce waste and improve nutritional quality. The Disruptor can deal with any product that’s flowable—wet or semi-dry (1 to 100,000 centipoise)—and can break the product down to a molecular level—with the insoluble fiber being sub-150 microns. To do this, the device requires some high-tech materials—seals that can withstand pressures to 900,000 psi and a new metal alloy that tops all other materials on the Rockwell hardness scale.”

As food shortages around the world haven’t lessened, Henderson wondered whether this technology could be applied to meat and protein products, that is, use everything—the meat itself, gristle, skin, tendons, etc.—well you get the idea. Literally no waste, except the bones, which can be handled in the usual ways—though he’s working on that, too. Using its patented DCD method in combination with its Disruptor technology, GCT has worked with industry experts to conduct trials on meat cuts usually difficult to process (including 5th quarter), but which, nevertheless contain high nutritional value and other benefits.

Roy Henderson, CEO, Green Cell Technologies

“Being at a molecular level, emulsions derived through GCT’s patented technology have consistent particle size,” says Henderson. “Because of bigger surface area, the gel formation also has a different dynamic. This gel has a greater ability to create crosslinks and binds together in a homogenous product that holds better than has ever been done before.”

“Animal skins (with hair), tendons, gristle, etc.—when deconstructed, are exceptionally high in protein and are rich in collagen and all the more valuable in their molecular form,” adds Henderson. “This can be used for human or animal food.”

I asked Henderson what GCT has been up to since 2016.

FE: How long have you been experimenting/researching this technology for meat/protein applications? What hurdles did you need to overcome? 

Henderson: We have been “playing” with this thought on and off since 2016; in fact, on October 3rd 2021, it will be five years. We started by hypothesizing what the effect would be if we DCD’d this or that (we really threw some weird materials into the Disruptor such as hearts, chicken wing tips, blood, pancreases, chicken skin, chicken popes’ noses, skins, hooves, hair, etc.—not altogether of course, although that is also possible). After about a year we started to see a pathway open, which allowed us to review what was conventionally accepted in processing of that type of material. 

Once we established a starting and end point, we needed to review the information we studied, and compare it against the result DCD and Disruptor technology would produce, which was often a complete unknown. A simple example is the previous lack of ability to easily process hair down into keratin, which is the most locked-in protein, but not now as DCD and Disruptor technology makes it possible. 

As we progressed and we learned by trial and error, we were able to produce an actual edible product, which confirmed, in the case of South African legislation, that there was a commercially viable product and one the Disruptor can deliver quicker, given the datum we have elicited over these trials to date. We continue to conduct a variety of trials at our Centre of Excellence in Cape Town for clients from all over the world and the results show conclusively that DCD and Disruptor technology are an excellent commercial and sustainable solution for all manner of meat processors. FE: How does this process differ from what you would use with plants or fruit? 

Henderson: Not a lot really. The nature of meat might need different up-front preparation and preprocessing, but in the end, we are taking a natural source material (in this case predominantly meat derivatives) and “Disrupting” it into an emulsion that lends itself as an ingredient or complex formula for final processed consumer meat products. 

We have actually processed beef and pork fillets and made what I can only describe as a meat paste; it actually tasted great and has a very good mouth feel. This was only done to see what the outcome would be as part of our experience portfolio. What we did derive from this exercise—and one of the applications is to improve “brining” (it might be different in name in different countries/regions), which is the practice of bulking meat with a “brine” (usually legislatively controlled as to what can go into a brine). 

You may have noticed how a cut of meat that you are cooking or roasting loses so much volume because the brine effectively cooks out and the meat returns to its original or near original weight. If we take waste parts from that animal (according to accepted regional legislation) and we DCD it into a fine emulsion and inject it (process of brining) into the meat it will increase yield/weight. When cooking, it will not cook out—other than the natural water found in the meat in the first place, instead it will actually form new meat.

FE: From the video, it looks like you have additional equipment for the meat process compared to the vegetable/fruit process. What is needed prior to the disruptor process? Is this ancillary equipment off-the-shelf, or have you designed it? 

Henderson: We do have the requirement to mince the material and at times cut a bit finer before DCD to assist the effect of the Disruptor. Most of the ancillary equipment is off the shelf, although we do prefer to advise our clients as to the whole process so as not to adversely affect the Disruptor outcome—our on-staff processing engineer is worth his weight in gold for this purpose, saving our clients time, effort and of course money. 

However, we are also in final design and development for a novel bone pre-processing equipment, which is exciting and keeping us busy at present.

FE: Would you separate the resulting protein/meat product into constituent parts—e.g., fat, protein, etc.? 

Henderson: It is up to what the client wants and how they direct us—if we are doing trials or toll manufacturing for them. Our business model is to license our technology to clients for them to use for their own purposes. That said, the meat emulsions produced by DCD and the Disruptor can be separated if required and the correct processes are used; although, if we had our way, we would like to see whole deconstructed meat products marketed to consumers that would provide them with excellent nutrition. Taste, of course, would be up to the manufacturer and their preferred spice pack. 

We can, of course, easily extract components such as amino acids or collagen etc. from the resultant emulsions, which adds further value to the source material, and can now be beneficiated in several profitable and useable ways.

FE: What food applications might be possible? 

Henderson: There are numerous applications with this technology such as: processed meats like Russian and Vienna sausages etc., polonies, pressed hams, Spam or bully beef in a can, meat sauces for pies, canned food etc., binders, fat replacers, showpieces for processed meats, fine emulsions for brining/bulking, fertilizers, extraction of specific chemistry, replacing render plants for animal feed, binding and functional ingredients. 

Our strategic view is to aid meat processors, and ultimately the environmental impact and assist the move towards net-zero, by enabling the production of more human and animal food with the crops and inputs the planet already has—which is eminently doable by being more effective and efficient in our processing. 

We also have our eye on creating future products that are hybrids of meat and plant sources, which will also assist in the transition to strong plant-based products as a protein source. Therefore, we’re effectively supporting all related industries, especially as consumer preferences shift toward plant-based foods and derivative markets over the next several decades.

FE: If there were a problem with product longevity (due to bacteria), you could certainly run it through an HPP process. Correct? Hyperbaric now has a bulk liquid process. 

Henderson: HPP is a great in-package solution but it does not assist the TMA (total microbial activity) issues in the manufacturing process where the losses occur. Also, DCD and Disruptor technology promote TMA cleanliness and stability by killing bacteria within the process, which means that products can be produced not needing a further kill step such as HPP. This may not be what the HPP market wants to hear, but without the requirement for HPP, the value chain cost is reduced and the consumer can be offered a cheaper product.

Lab tests bear out the effectiveness of bacterial kills through the DCD/Disruptor process. Trials were conducted at GCT’s Centre of Excellence in Cape Town, South Africa, and involved pork tendons in the first trial and pork tendons & rinds together in the next.

  • The DCD emulsions were sent to independent internationally recognized laboratories for analysis (assays available on request).
  • The results conclusively prove that there is vastly reduced to “no growth” TMA when using DCD.
  • GCT can conclude that DCD extends cold chain shelf life of processed meat emulsions not yet in a final product by 2700% or 2300% for the two trials, respectively.

FE: Do you have any prospective customers interested in this technology from a food perspective? Nutraceuticals? 

Henderson: Yes, we do, although we are not at liberty to disclose exact details now due to NDA’s but we are very close to finalizing orders for Zambia, Botswana, South Africa and Tanzania, and we are currently engaging Mexico and Australia.

FE: I could see where the pet food industry could benefit from this technology. Could it simplify rendering for creating pet food inputs? What do you think? 

Henderson: It will not just simplify rendering it will negate the necessity for it. Today, all the cuts or parts of the carcass that cannot be processed or used are boiled beyond recognition and then processed into animal food. We can take that same source material and DCD it and then extrude it into animal pellets and other food formats. DCD will contribute significantly to net zero goals and will cut power costs by removing the need to boil anything, which will be a massive boon for the environment. Additionally, the boiling process kills most of the goodness and with DCD and Disruptor technology, better nutrition is achieved along with improved yields, which again is a big positive.

FE: How do you work with clients in different countries with different regulations?

Henderson: We are client directed and in the case of meat, it is very heavily driven regionally by legislation; i.e., what is permissible in China is not that same as the USA and Australia etc. Therefore, we will work with the client to conduct trials with the materials of their choice to produce legally approved meat products, thereafter once they have purchased a Disruptor, we are on site to set it up according to their needs and we are on hand with advice and assistance as and when required. It is a surprisingly easy technology to use. 

Case study: We are currently engaged with a client in another country who is focused only on what to do with their skins, blood, tendons, etc. We can make product according to the rules of that country.

The benefit of DCD is that these parts will not be organoleptically detectable—and only adds to the protein/chemistry make-up and taste of the product and the binding ability/functionality of the end processed product. This effectively starts to clean up the labels because the necessity to add as many processing agents/chemicals and functionality agents can be reduced. 

FE: Is this entire process available soon or now? 

Henderson: If you ordered a system today, we would be able to commission it on site in about five to seven months’ time (four months to build and two months to ship (depends on schedule) although COVID does have its own effect on timescales).

FE: Any other comments—what do you see in the future? 

Henderson: Just looking at rendering plants alone, which are a massive burden on meat industry players and often run at a loss, and which are excessively power hungry, they could be replaced literally overnight with a very nutritious animal/pet food outcome. The net zero imperative in this industry is here now—not waiting for 2050.

David Bowie’s famed song, “Space Oddity,” is maybe now not so much science fiction, but a science fact—take your protein pill and put your helmet on, Major Tom. DCD and Disruptor technology is the technology that will facilitate the shift to that “protein pill” and possibly slow down the race to space for fear that earth will stop being a “life raft.” Notwithstanding this, DCD and Disruptor technology can, of course, provide the new space travelers with space food, and we have some really good ideas here too.

(This article was originally published on foodengineeringmag.com)

Extracting nutrients from food faster than the speed of sound

A patented technique to process fruit, vegetables and other ingredients faster than the speed of sound, allows this South African company to harness over 99% of the molecules at a nano scale. Greater yields, higher bioavailability, and less waste, it says.

Niamh Michail | Mar 08, 2021

Developed by Green Cell Technologies (GCT), the process is known as dynamic cell disruption (DCD) and, according to the company, it opens up an impressive 99.999998% of all cell structures.

“Dynamic cell disruption is a process which we developed that allows us to manufacture raw materials such as fruit and vegetables in a specific way to minimise waste and maximise extracts and nutritional purity,”

said Roy Henderson, co-founder and CEO of Green Cell Technologies (GCT).

“We have some insights we like to keep to ourselves but, in essence, in a very short distance of approximately 40 cm we have found a way to accelerate the raw material, whatever it might be – fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, meat – to six times the speed of sound and then decelerate it, which causes the cell structure to become unstable and stretch. It’s a mechanical process using acceleration and deceleration forces.”

The non-thermal, non-chemical process can break raw materials down into particles of 150 microns, and is more efficient than current processing methods as it reduces food waste and adds value to by-products.

“Today, either you have some kind of press to squeeze [the raw material] that leaves a big pile of pomace or you have a blade spinning,” Henderson told Fi Global Insights.

“What we are doing is liberating molecules at a nano scale. We are not altering the molecule, merely releasing it from the structure which, in essence, is what any processor tries to do when it wants to extract juices or create pulp.”

“It allows us to break open 100% of the cells and, as a result, liberate the molecules into whatever solvent medium is chosen so you have higher purity and higher yields. We also break open and reduce the insoluble fibres to small micron size so you don’t have to throw it away; you can leave it in the emulsion.”

Henderson co-founded the company over one decade ago, dedicating the first two years to R&D and a further six years on engineering the machine, called the Disruptor.

“The materials and forces involved in the Disruptor are quite difficult to harness if you don’t know how -we had to invent something that didn’t exist,” he said.

Recently, Green Cell Technologies has been testing the machinery using lower-value cuts of meat that are not appealing for consumers but can be micronized and added back into products to boost the nutritional content. However, Henderson says the equipment can be used in “a multitude of applications” from food, drinks and supplements to agricultural inputs, biofuels and sterilization.

The company, which is based in South Africa but headquartered in the UK’s Isle of Man, has patents either granted or pending in 58 countries and its machinery is already being used in South Africa, Brazil and other countries around the world.

Scaling up with Citrosuco

Since 2018, the Disruptor has been used by one of the world’s biggest orange juice producers, Brazil’s Citrosuco. It signed an agreement giving it exclusive licensing rights to GCT’s dynamic cell disruption process for the global orange juice and orange-related specialty ingredients market. 

The Disruptor allows Citrosuco to produce more orange juice from the same amount of fruit by using the pulp, explained Henderson. Most of the orange juice produced in the world today is made by squeezing oranges. Juice processors tend to separate the juice from the pulp – an opaque, white cell structure – and freeze a small percentage of the pulp that they send to the juice brand. The brand can then decide whether or not to add the pulp back in, depending on preferences within that particular market, notably whether consumers prefer a smooth drink or one ‘with bits’.

Using GCT’s Disruptor machine, however, Citrosuco can micronize the pulp, reducing it to such a small particle size that it can be added back into the juice “without the organoleptic challenge” of having pulpy bits in the juice, says Henderson.

“[The pulp becomes] sublingual; the consumer is not aware it’s there. So, in terms of economics, you are adding more volume in and, from a green point of view, it’s no longer a waste stream because you can micronize it and use it as a fruit fibre.”

In a recent letter of endorsement, the general manager of Citrosuco’s product development and applications department, Alex Schuermans, said that thanks to GCT’s technology, orange pulp has

“successfully been converted into a very nice orange puree with unique mouthfeel and texture characteristics”

that could be used in products such as smoothies, juices and purees.

Slashing production time

Green Cell Technologies has also licenced its technology to a South African chili sauce manufacturer who has been able to speed up its production process. Traditionally, chilis are placed into a brine solution and left to infuse for 18 months or more to release the flavour compounds. The solids are then separated and turned into a sauce.

“We take whole chilies – skin, seeds and all – and process it to an emulsion so after two weeks you have the flavour compounds and can make the sauce [with] up to 70% yield because you can use the skins and seeds,” Henderson said.

The Disruptor machinery is available in four sizes of depending on how much raw material a manufacturer wants to process. One model, for instance, can process 2,000 kilograms per hour and can run continuously for 22 hours a day, with two hours set aside for cleaning, and 29 days a month, with one day required for maintenance. However, it is currently working on developing a smaller model that would be accessible for smaller companies.


Non-thermal, non-chemical food production technology tested locally

A new food processing method developed by biotechnology multinational Green Cell Technologies (GCT) deploys a non-thermal, non-chemical process to open 99.999998% of all cell structures using its Dynamic Cellular Disruption (DCD) process and disruptor technology.

During the DCD process, other than pipe loss, which is the same volume irrespective of the production size, there is no waste product and the plant material is used in its entirety. DCD renders all the molecules bio-available for a body to use.

DCD extracts from the source material and, therefore, outcomes are wholly reliant on the source material itself, the company states.

Current food and beverage processing methods often kill off molecules that provide nutrition by using incorrect heat, generating oxidative stress or enzyme action, thereby removing their efficacy.

Additionally, these existing methods cannot easily and effectively process skins and seeds (which contain significant nutritional properties), or radically reduce the fibre particle size to a level that will not upset the organoleptic sensibilities of the consumer, GCT says in a January 12 statement.

Therefore, a conventional processor ends each day with not only a large pile of waste, but also a product that has a vastly reduced nutritional profile compared with the source material.

“Ironically, the waste represents the majority of the raw material molecules that are required for optimal nutrition. The waste also represents most of the fibre, which if ingested, would aid other nutritional and health benefits.”

Molecules found in cellular structures of meat, fruit, vegetables, berries, nuts, and seeds provide sustaining nutrition to achieve good health and wellbeing. These molecules represent a comprehensive variety of all the macro- and micronutrients necessary for human beings and animals to flourish.

Headquartered in the Isle of Man, GCT used its South African-based test facility to develop and manufacture a butternut soup, which was then sent for measurement at accredited laboratories to prove its efficacy and appropriateness for feeding schemes, as well as commercial manufacture.

“GCT manufactured the soup using the DCD process and disruptor technology and GCT has now substantially proven that it is able to produce healthy and tasty food that does not cost the earth,” the company states.

The DCD also reduces microbiological contaminants, yeasts and moulds found in source materials. Therefore, the product that has passed through the disruptor will show improved microbiological cleanliness.

“The DCD process and disruptor technology increase the available nutrition per serving, and reduce particle size and waste, which has a positive impact on the consumer and the environment. The increased extraction of molecules signifies an increase in yield, and, with the use of what would normally be considered waste, has a positive economic impact on the processing value chain. The technology can process most raw materials to improve nutrition while reducing food insecurity,” the company says. 


The Power of Microparticles: DCD® Technology

Eben van Tonder discusses Dynamic Cellular Disruption (DCD) and the effect it is having on the meat processing industry.

In 2016 I started working on a newly developed technology which reduce food particles to microparticles. The technology is pioneered by Green Cell Technologies® and they call it Dynamic Cellular Disruption® (DCD®). It is a novel process that breaks up food particles using high pressure, high speed and other physical forces without using chemicals, enzymes or blades. It is revolutionizing meat processing!

Eben van Tonder, ResearchGate.net